Collection Of Samples And Laboratory Methods
Blood samples for CBC and serum chemistry were collected in potassiumEDTA and plain tubes with gel separators, respectively, and analyzed within 60minutes from collection. Urinalysis, including dipstick analysis, measurement of specific gravity by refractometry, sediment cytology , and bacterial culture and sensitivity, was done on urine samples obtained by cystocentesis. Hematuria and pyuria were defined as the presence of > 5 erythrocytes or leukocytes in a high power field. Bacteriuria was considered positive if bacteria were evident upon sediment cytology. Proteinuria was defined as a urine dipstick result of 1+ .
Hematology And Serum Chemistry
Anemia was common in both survivors and nonsurvivors , with no significant difference in median hematocrit between the outcome groups .3). Hyperbilirubinemia was also common in survivors and nonsurvivors , and serum total bilirubin did not differ between groups. Median sCr, urea, and phosphorous concentrations were significantly higher, and the venous blood pH was significantly lower in nonsurvivors compared with survivors .4). Median sCr concentration at presentation significantly decreased compared to discharge in survivors . There was no significant parallel change in sCr among nonsurvivors between presentation and death or euthanasia . Moreover, median sCr concentration of the survivors at discharge was lower compared with nonsurvivors at death or euthanasia .
What Is The Prognosis For Cats With Ckd
Once sufficient damage has been done to the kidneys to cause CKD, the compensatory changes and adaptations that occur to try to maintain normal kidney function usually eventually fail and progressive kidney damage occurs. The disease is usually therefore progressive over time and will eventually lead to the need for euthanasia. However the rate of progression of renal disease varies considerably between individuals and appropriate support and treatment can both increase the quality of life of affected cats and also potentially slow down the progression of the disease.
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Stage : Early Kidney Insufficiency
At this early stage, your vet will often find a large amount of protein in your cats urine.
High blood pressure and a creatine level greater than 1.5 will likely be noted.
Treatment at this stage includes annual blood pressure, blood tests, and urine testing.
Dental care recommendations are common to prevent periodontal disease, which can exacerbate renal problems.
Calcitriol therapy will help replace vitamin D.
Abdominal x-rays may be ordered to rule out kidney stones.
Supplements For Cats With Kidney Disease
Along with a new, healthier diet, your vet may recommend supplements.
Phosphorus binders are one common supplement for cats suffering renal failure.
Vitamin D supplements are another favorite.
Its important to avoid any home remedies or herbal supplements.
Your sweet kitty is depending on you to make good decisions regarding her care now that she is suffering from kidney disease.
Some herbal supplements will do much more harm than good. Its just not worth the risk.
Be sure to follow your vets dietary and supplement advice carefully.
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Common Causes Of Kidney Disease In Cats
Kidney disease is a common problem in cats, affecting more than 1/3 of older cats1,2. There are a number of causes that may affect different age groups and have different consequences. Ultimately though, chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury will always have the same resulta sick kitty. The signs of illness in your cat reflect the failure of the kidneys to do their many jobs well enough. Below, you will find a brief description of ten common causes of kidney disease. These are the targets of your veterinarians testing
1. Infection of kidney tissues Infection of kidney tissues with bacteria or, rarely, fungal organisms, is one of the kidney diseases that may have a more favorable outcome, so your veterinarian will be on the lookout for it. Our goal with pyelonephritis is to kill the bacteria that cause the damaging inflammation. This should limit progression of any chronic kidney disease or assist with recovery from an acute kidney injury. A bacterial urine culture and susceptibility can verify the infection and identify which antibiotic might work the best.
2. Kidney stones Kidney stones can be the product of chronic bacterial infection, genetics or diseases that alter blood or urine characteristics. Nephro liths dont seem to cause cats much pain, but this can change if they cause blockage within the kidney or its collecting ducts it can also change if they contribute to infection .
- Pet Poison Helpline 764-7661
Amylase Cholesterol And Packed Cell Volume
Amylase is an enzyme produced by the pancreas. Some vets believe an elevated level beyond the normal 100 u/L to 1,200 u/L range can be a precursor to kidney failure before other symptoms show up. Cholesterol levels need monitoring, because some cats experience higher levels if they have kidney disease a normal range for a cat is 75 to 220. The PCV, or HCT, is monitored for potential anemia, a common occurrence in cats with kidney issues. A normal PCV is 29 percent to 48 percent red blood cells.
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What Does Symmetrical Versus Asymmetrical Mean
Society has a lot more interest and resources devoted to solving human health problems than pet health problems. So for many years kidney specialists have been screening all the compounds that went up as the heath of their kidney dialysis patients went down. They look for some Holy Grail to measure kidney improvement or decline. They noticed that and were two of the many compounds that went up in the blood as their patients health declined. Some hoped that SDMA might give them better insights than creatinine levels did. One big drawback was that an accurate decision as to what constituted normal SDMA levels could not be agreed upon. The other big problem was the complicated and time-consuming ways SDMA and ADMA had to be measured . Because HPLC testing was so cumbersome and expensive it wasnt something you veterinarian could perform in the back room.
Idexx Laboratories of Westbrook, Maine found a way around that. In 2013 they patented a much simpler way to measure SDMA levels in your pets blood. They did it using an test. Actually, an ELISA test to measure SDMA may have been the brainchild of a group of researchers in Neuss, Germany looking for a reliable way to diagnose lupus autoimmune disease) .
When Will A Veterinarian Order Blood Tests For Cats
Sometimes in the case of an eye or ear infection, your feline friend’s medical condition affords a veterinarian the opportunity for a relatively straightforward diagnosis. However, other times result in the need for further examination. In such a case, your veterinarian will order feline blood tests to aid in his or her investigation. The following situations can result in the need for blood tests for cats:
At Prestige Animal Hospital, blood tests for cats are processed and analyzed on premises at our in-house laboratory or can be sent out for more comprehensive or specialized tests. Having an on-site laboratory allows us to quickly and reliably determine and diagnose a health concern, and then implement a successful medical intervention based on the results.
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Chronic Kidney Failure In Cats
The term “chronic kidney failure” suggests that the kidneys have quit working and are, therefore, not making urine. However, by definition, kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to remove waste products from the blood. This definition can occasionally create confusion because some will equate kidney failure with failure to make urine. Kidney failure is NOT the inability to make urine it is the inability of the kidneys to remove toxic and waste products from the blood. Ironically, most cats in kidney failure are actually producing large quantities of urine, but the bodys wastes are not being effectively eliminated.
Early Diagnosis Of Ckd: Urine Protein/creatinine Ratio
Proteinuria in dogs and cats with CKD can occur due to glomerular and/or tubular lesions. Glomerular proteinuria can be caused by loss of integrity of, or damage to, the capillary wall . It is also likely that increases in glomerular capillary pressure increase the amount of filtered plasma protein. Intraglomerular hypertension may result from loss of nephrons and from systemic hypertension being transmitted into glomerular capillaries. Structural glomerular disease and CKD are often accompanied by systemic hypertension that can exacerbate intraglomerular hypertension and glomerular proteinuria. Tubular proteinuria occurs when tubular reabsorption of protein from the glomerular filtrate is compromised. Tubular proteinuria is typically of lesser magnitude than glomerular proteinuria. Reduced tubular reabsorption of protein in dogs and cats with CKD can occur with tubulointerstial injury and decreased numbers of functioning tubules. Whether caused by capillary wall lesions, tubular lesions, or intraglomerular hypertension, excessive quantities of protein in the glomerular filtrate may contribute to additional glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, leading to further loss of nephrons. Proteinuric renal disease and systemic hypertension often co-exist and therefore it is difficult at times to separate the effects of high systemic and intraglomerular pressures and proteinuria.
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Is Sedation Needed For Smda Blood Testing
Neither sedation nor anesthesia is needed in most cats however, some cats resent needle sticks and may need tranquilization or ultrashort anesthesia.
SDMA is an exciting new test that will allow your veterinarian to monitor changes in values over time to help evaluate response to therapy/treatment, monitor progression of renal disease, decide when additional treatments should be added, and identify sudden worsening in your catâs chronic kidney disease.We hope this article has answered many of your questions and will help you better understand your veterinarianâs recommendations as you monitor your catâs kidney function.
Types Of Feline Blood Work
The four most common types of feline blood work we order are:
- Feline Leukemia-Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: This is a common test for kittens and cats, especially those coming from unknown origins. These viruses are interspecies contagious and life threatening, so we recommend feline bloodwork to test for both if you adopt, find or take in a new kitten or cat
- Complete Blood Count : We analyze cat bloodwork to assess features of the blood, including red and white cell count, immunity status, and the measure of hemoglobin, which is the actual substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen. We also examine hydration status, anemia, infection, blood clotting ability and immune system response. A CBC is essential for cats that have symptoms like fever, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, pale gums or loss of appetite. A CBC can also detect bleeding disorders or other unseen abnormalities as part of a pre-surgery risk assessment
- Blood Serum Chemistry: We analyze cat bloodwork to evaluate organ function, electrolyte status, hormone levels and more. These tests are important to evaluating the health of older cats, cats with signs of vomiting, diarrhea or toxin exposure, as well as cats receiving long-term medications and general health before anesthesia
- Total Thyroid Level: We analyze cat bloodwork for hyperthyroidism, as well as the reverse condition, euthyroidism, or a low thyroid function that can indicate disease in a cats body
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Treatment Of High Creatinine In Cats
If you are wondering how to lower creatinine levels in cats, the answer is found in treating its underlying cause. Here we look at the three main issues which affect the kidneys and result in
- Impaired renal flow: the cat should be rehydrated by fluid therapy or transfusions in some cases.
- Treatable kidney disease: the problem should be addressed specific to the cause as well as any other associated disease. The kidney should be supported with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to reduce protein excretion in the urine, treat hypertension through the use of drugs such as amlodipine, reduce hyperphosphatemia with kidney feed and, if necessary, use a phosphate binder, appetite stimulants such as mirtazapine and antiemetics in case of vomiting. If there is infection, the specific antibiotics established by the antibiogram should be used.
- Feline obstructive lower urinary tract disease: the feline should be unblocked. In some cases there are stones that can removed by diet, such as struvite. In cases where the stones are calcium oxalate, the only solution is surgery. The same will be required in cases of bladder rupture.
Learn more about removing urinary stones with our article on why my cat has crystals in their urine.
This article is purely informative. AnimalWised does not have the authority to prescribe any veterinary treatment or create a diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the veterinarian if they are suffering from any condition or pain.
Purpose Of The Kidneys
To understand a little about kidney disease, lets discuss some of the many functions of the kidney. The kidney is one of the most amazing organs in the body and has numerous critical functions. It filters around 20 percent of the bodys blood, regulates body water and electrolyte balance, and helps regulate arterial pressure and acid base balance. It also regulates the excretion of calcium and the production of the active form of vitamin D. It plays a key role in the metabolism of some important body minerals and produces almost all of a special substance called erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. In addition to all this, the kidney is responsible for getting rid of metabolic waste products and chemicals through excretion in the urine. If this vital organ is not functioning as it should, there are lots of systemic consequences.
The most common signs that an animal may be experiencing kidney dysfunction are increased thirst and urination. In later stages of the disease, gastrointestinal signs such as bad breath, vomiting, poor appetite and diarrhea may appear. There may also be a gradual decline in body condition with weight loss and poor hair coat. Some animals show no signs at all, and their disease is picked up, as stated above, during routine physical examination and screening tests of blood and urine.
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High Creatinine Levels In Cats
See files for Cats
High creatinine levels in cats are related to kidney disease. There are other symptoms which will usually present in the cat before a test for creatinine levels are carried out. The reason for these high levels are partly because the kidneys impaired function prevents the creatine from being reabsorbed after filtration. They are also related problems such as kidney perfusion disorders due to altered blood flow or inadequate elimination due to obstruction of urine flow. Most causes of high creatine levels are pathological, although it can also be related to muscle degeneration.
If you want to know the causes of high creatinine levels in cats, AnimalWised provides the information you need. We also look at what is a normal level of creatinine in cats, as well as how to reduce high levels back down to it.
Creatinine Levels In Cats
The creatinine levels incats can be measured if the cat is suspected of metabolic problems or akidney disease. The creatinine levels are determined by the activity ofcreatinine, which provides the energy needed by the cats muscles for everyday activities. The creatinine produced will be present in the cats blood stream and this will travel in the entire body, being filtered by the kidneys. If the kidneys dont function properly, this can affect the levels of creatinine.
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Is Kidney Transplantation Possible For My Cat
This procedure is being done at a few selected locations in the United States. Generally, the cat must still be in good condition and not ill from the kidney failure in order to be accepted for a transplant. Also, many transplant centers require that the owner adopt the cat which has donated a kidney for the procedure.
This procedure is not for everyone. The cost is often prohibitive and multiple medications must be given daily for the duration of the cats life. Repeated blood tests are required to monitor function of the transplanted kidney and to monitor blood levels of the anti-rejection drug. Also, the anti-rejection drug is expensive. But, it is truly a cure for kidney failure.
What Are The Signs Of Hypercalcemia In Cats
Many cats with mild hypercalcemia have no symptoms at all. Signs of hypercalcemia in cats occur when calcium is extremely elevated in the blood, or the calcium concentration in the blood has been elevated over time.
The clinical signs of hypercalcemia in cats are related to the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system, the kidneys, and the neuromuscular system, and therefore can include:
- Enlarged lymph nodes with lymphoma
- Straining to urinate, increased trips to the litterbox, or bloody urine associated with calcium
- Urinary bladder stones
- Collapse or coma in severe cases
If you notice any of the above symptoms in your cat, call your veterinarian immediately, or contact a local emergency veterinary clinic, as severe hypercalcemia in cats is life threatening. If blood phosphorus and calcium levels are chronically elevated over time, it can cause irreversible organ damage.
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What Are The Signs Of Kidney Disease In Cats
The signs of renal disease in cats are often frustratingly subtle.
Since many cats are naturally finicky, it can be difficult to distinguish between a cat developing a new, endearing quirk or the symptom of a serious disease.
Even so, its important to note any sudden changes in your cats behavior or habits.
Keep a close eye out for the following signs of kidney failure in your cat.
- Increased Thirst
One of the earliest signs of kidney disease is increased thirst.
If your cat suddenly camps out by the water bowl and is constantly drinking, you should take note.
Since some cats will only drink when nobody is watching which makes this sign difficult to catch.
Its also hard to tell if one cat is drinking more if he shares a water bowl with other pets.
If you suspect your cat is drinking more, but hes hiding or there are other pets in the household, try isolating your kitty and monitoring his water intake for 24 hours.
- Frequent Urination
For cats that go outdoors to relieve themselves, frequent urination may be impossible to detect.
For indoor cat parents, seeing larger clumps in clumping litter or finding a flooded litter box could be an early sign of kidney disease.
Pay attention to your cats bathroom habits if they seem to be changing.
- Subtle Weight Loss
Weight loss due to kidney disease can happen slowly.
That makes it harder to notice, especially in cats who are picky eaters or who often skip meals.
Isnt it worth a few minutes each day to save your cats life?