Blood Type Is Determined By Genes
When it comes to blood types, the gene for type A is dominant that is, it needs only one copy to express itself. Type B, on the other hand, is recessive, and a kitten would need to inherit type B genes from both its parents to have that blood type. Blood type AB is inherited independently it appears to be dominant to the B gene but recessive to the A gene.
Cats Have Blood Types That Should Often Not Be Mixed
Does blood type really matter other than as a matter of curiosity? Yes! Any time a cat needs a blood transfusion, that cat ideally should receive blood of the same type.
Blood types in cats are labeled as A, B, or AB. Cats with type B blood usually have high levels of natural antibodies to type A blood, which means even one incorrect transfusion may result in a reaction that causes the rapid destruction of red blood cells.
Cats with type A blood have low levels of naturally occurring antibodies to type B, so they usually can accept one transfusion of type B without problems. They may subsequently produce antibodies to Type B blood, however, and a second transfusion may lead to a reaction with destruction of blood cells.
Cats with the rare AB blood type do not usually have antibodies to either type A or B, and can usually receive transfusions from either type A or type B donors with no problem.
Blood type incompatibility can be a problem for kittens who have a different blood type than their queen. Once they start nursing, they can develop fatal destruction of red blood cells .
When Is A Blood Transfusion Needed
A blood transfusion provides an immediate supply of red blood cells, which are essential for carrying oxygen around the body. A blood transfusion can therefore be life-saving in severe anemia. However blood contains many other elements which may also be useful. When blood is transfused the three major elements that can be provided are:
Red blood cells : these are the cells that carry oxygen around the body and are given to treat anemia. A simple blood measurement called the packed cell volume can be used to estimate the number of red blood cells. In a normal cat, the PCV is usually between 25% and 45%. Although each individual situation varies, a blood transfusion will normally be required if the PCV falls below 10-15%
Plasma: this is the fluid component of blood . It contains many proteins with essential functions. Albumin – this is the major protein in blood, and importantly helps to hold fluid within the circulation. Other chemicals and hormones may be transported around the body being bound to albumin. Clotting factors – these are critically important proteins in the blood that cause blood to clot when a blood vessel is damaged. Inflammatory mediators – a variety of proteins are produced during inflammation to help fight infections and regulate the inflammation
Platelets: these are very small cells in the blood that work alongside clotting factors to allow blood to clot and prevent prolonged bleeding after injury
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Treatment Of Feline Neonatal Isoerythrolysis
Once the antibodies have passed to the kitten, they cannot be taken away. However, if the caregiver notices the problem during the first hours of life, they can remove them from feeding from their mother. They can then feed them with artificial milk formulated for kittens. This will prevent the kitten from ingesting more antibodies which would further aggravate the problem.
Blood Types Of Other Species
Non-human primates also possess the ABO Blood group as in humans, though, at the genetic level, there are variations .
Cats have 1 blood group system with 3 blood types, A, B, and AB. But these are in no way the same as the As and Bs in human blood types. So dont worry, if you ever need a transfusion, you wont get cat blood .
Cornell U. states that in horses, we recognize over 30 blood groups, but of those, 8 are considered significant. Finally, looking at Cattle, they have 11 systems, while sheep have 7, and goats have 5.
So, yes, animals have blood types, and they are very different from one species to another.
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Why You Should Know Your Cats Blood Type
Knowing your catâs blood type is useful if your cat is sick and needs to have a blood transfusion. Prior to a cat blood transfusion, all cats will have their blood taken to identify their blood type. Then, based on their blood type, they will receive a cat blood transfusion with that type of blood. Itâs important for your veterinarian to have this information before performing a blood transfusion, which could be potentially fatal should the blood not be a match. Knowing your catâs blood type also helps them to make the right decision about which blood type/product is the safest for your cat. Cats that are given the wrong type of blood can have allergic reactions that can result in a very mild reaction to a severe, life-threatening crisis. The most significant reactions are seen when a B type cat is given A blood due to the higher rate of antibodies to A blood. Cats that have AB blood type can receive A or B blood but usually receive A blood because it is more common and thus, more readily available.
There are multiple ways that veterinary hospitals have access to blood for cat blood transfusions:
Blood Transfusions In Cats
In some cases of anemia in cats, the feline will need a blood transfusion. This is because cats with chronic anemia have lower hematocrits than those suffering acute anemia or sudden blood loss. The normal hematocrit level is around 30-50%. This means cats with chronic anemia will need a transfusion if their hematocrit levels are around 10-15% and other cats with 20-25% will also need one.
Along with the hematocrit levels, there are other clinical signs which means the cat will require a blood transfusion. These symptoms indicate there is cellular hypoxia and include:
- Toxoplasma gondii
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Cat Breeds Of Group Ab
The AB group is very rare to find, but can be found in:
- Turkish Angora
- Turkish Van
The blood group that a cat has depends on their parents, since it is inherited through genetics. Each cat has one allele from the father and one from the mother, this combination determining their blood group. Allele A is dominant over B and it is even considered dominant with AB. This is why a cat requires both B alleles to be blood type B. The combinations of different cat blood types are:
- A cat with A blood type would present one of the following combinations: A / A, A / B, A / AB.
- A cat with B blood type is always B / B because it is never dominant.
- A cat with AB blood type will be AB / AB or AB / B.
What Is The Treatment For Neonatal Isoerythrolysis In Kittens
Remove type A kittens immediately, type B kittens can continue to nurse.
The veterinarian may perform ablood transfusion, preferably washed blood which removes the serum component containing alloantibodies from the kittens mother. This sounds counter-intuitive, why would you transfuse a different type of blood into the kitten, however, the queens blood is not going to respond to her own type B antibodies in the kittens blood.
If the queen can not make a blood donation, then another type B cat should be used, again once the blood has been washed. After 3 days the kitten should be producing antibodies against type B blood, therefore if a second transfusion is required down the line, type A blood should be used in the Type A kitten.
Prognosis is poor, even with treatment.
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Do Animals Have Different Blood Types
Humans and pets are alike in so many ways. Just as we have different blood types, so do our furry friends. Knowing about your pets blood type can be helpful in emergency situations. Here are some things about animal blood types that every pet owner should know.
Cat Blood Types
Unlike humans that have four blood types, cats only have three. Types A and B are common ones while AB is a rare type commonly seen in Absynnian cats. Like us, they exhibit negative reaction to blood transfusions of a different type of blood. Cats with type B blood generally show severe reactions to type A blood because of their present antibodies. Cats with type A blood, on the other hand, are more tolerant of type B transfusions. AB blood can be transfused to cats of all types without any adverse side effects. However, type AB blood occurs in only 1% of cats. In emergency situations, it is important that your pet is properly typed before any transfusion can be done. Transfusions of the wrong blood type would normally result in the death of the cat.
Dog blood types
There are 8 common blood types for dogs. Unlike humans and cats, they do not have naturally occurring antibodies in their blood. This means that they do not exhibit any negative reaction with a transfusion of another blood type. Earlier, it was believed that dogs did not have different blood types because of this characteristic.
Pet blood donation
The Dog Blood Transfusion Process
Whether its going to a blood bank or directly to a waiting dog, the blood is collected and kept in special bags that keep the blood from clotting.
When its time to give a dog a blood transfusion, these bags are hooked up to an IV fluid line with a special filter built in. The blood transfusion is given directly into the vein through the IV catheter.
The total dose of blood to be transfused is based on the dogs size and how much blood they have lost. This is given over a specific time period, and the dog is monitored very closely to be sure they arent developing an allergic reaction.
For many health issues, a single blood transfusion is all thats needed to help the dog recover. For some diseases where there is ongoing blood loss or destruction of blood cells, the dog may need repeated blood transfusions.
Fortunately, most dogs never need a blood transfusion, but for those that do, it can be lifesaving.
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Why Is It Important To Type Cats Before Transfusion Blood Transfusion Risks
Cats that are transfused, even once, with an incompatible blood type, are at risk for a transfusion reaction. Cats with type B blood exhibit an immediate and catastrophic systemic anaphylactic reaction and a Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction when transfused with type A blood, because of their natural high-tittered anti-A antibody. As an outcome death of the patient is extremely likely.
Cats with type A blood exhibit a natural low-tittered anti-B antibody response when transfused with type B blood. In this case, the reaction is mild but the transfused cells will have a shortened life span. The recipient will develop moderate titers of anti-B antibody that will result in a serious reaction if a subsequent incompatible transfusion is administered
Dog Blood Type Testing
The blood types of both dogs must be matched before the transfusion.
The vet will take a sample of blood from the dog getting the transfusion to check for an immune response to a sample of blood taken from the donor dog, and then this process is reversed.
This is an important step because giving DEA 1 Positive blood to a dog thats DEA 1 Negative can cause the immune system to attack the newly transfused blood cellsreducing their effectiveness and potentially causing serious allergic reactions.
After both dogs are blood typed for DEA 1, then crossmatching tests are run as well.
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Why Does My Cat Need It
Cats should be blood typed and/or cross-matched if they need to receive blood and when they donate blood to ensure any transfusion is compatible.Photo: Pikist
Blood-typing in cats is only tested when there is a need for blood transfusion or before breeding. Usually, blood transfusions are required because of anaemias that can lead to blood loss .
The decision whether a blood transfusion should be done depends on the ratio of red blood cells to whole blood volume ie: haematocrit . An RBC transfusion is recommended for critically ill cats if the Hct falls below 10-15 percent. It is equally important to observe the condition of the cat: Parameters like weak pulse, lethargy, and weakness are also indicators hinting a transfusion.
In cases of acute anaemia or if the animal needs surgery, blood transfusions are given at higher Hct values. Cats with chronic anaemia tolerate a low Hct better than those with acute anaemia.
In case of breeding, neonatal erythropoiesis or haemolysis can occur if cat having one blood group is mated with another cat having another blood group.
Keep in mind that blood typing is not only extremely vital prior to a blood transfusion, but also for cat breeding purposes.
Neonatal isoerythrolysis occurs when a mommy cat with type B blood gives birth to kittens with type A or AB blood and breast-feed them with a high chance of having antigens of type A blood antibodies in the milk, which can cause a severe hemolysis reaction in the kittens.
Properties Of The Blood Of The Dogs:
- In general, human blood and dog blood are quite similar, but there are certain differences in both.
- The blood of a dog has usually 4 to 8 percent greater chloride content than human blood.
- There is less bicarbonate in dogs blood in comparison to humans.
- The lactic acid concentration at rest in the dogs is much more variable than that of humans.
- In the blood of dogs, red blood cells contain little potassium as compared to humans.
Quick Facts about Blood Types In Dogs
- Canine blood donors should be negative.
- Positive blood cannot be given to negative dogs twice.
- There are more than a dozen blood groups in dogs.
- The majority of blood donors in dogs are female. Their ratio is 56%.
- The most common type of blood type of dogs is DAE 1.1 . The occurrence is 71%.
Frequently Asked Questions:
Why is there a blood test before transfusion?
As it has become that dogs have different blood types like many other animals as well as humans, then it is important to take care of these types while going for clinical transfusion. Otherwise, different blood types can lead to antibodies formation resulting in life-threatening situations.
Can we transfuse human blood to the dogs?
Human blood cannot be given to the dog and vice versa. The reason is the different structures and types of blood. However, certain proteins from the blood can be isolated and then used.
Can dogs donate blood?
Dogs can donate blood if they pass the following criteria:
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Do Animals Have Different Blood Types Too
We tend to think about our blood type when we give blood, get a blood transfusion, or when we decide to go on a fad diet that requires us to eat specific foods based on the proteins we have riding around on our red blood cells. So, depending on your personal habits, your consideration of blood types or blood groups, as scientists refer to them might range from rarely ever or pretty much all the time.
But how much do animals think about their blood types? Presumably never, given what we know about animal cognition. But we humans do think about our animals, because sometimes animals receive blood transfusions too, and we want to make sure the blood we’re giving a ferret or dog or parakeet doesn’t cause a blood incompatibility reaction. That’s a negative reaction causing the recipient’s immune system to attack foreign blood, producing antibodies against the red blood cell proteins, or antigens, in the donated blood. Although all animals have blood groups, every species has a different system, and we know the most about the systems of domesticated mammals.
The human blood group system is based on three different antigens: A, B, and O. The possible blood types we could have are A, B, AB and O, and each one of these can be either Rh positive or negative. Type O negative blood is generally considered to be universally accepted by any other blood type, and type AB positive can receive any other type.
Cat Blood Types: What You Need To Know
Unless youâre a veterinarian, you may not think much about cat blood, but would it surprise you to learn that cats have blood types similar to humans? Like humans, cats can have type A blood, type B blood, and even AB type blood. Veterinarians can determine your catâs blood type based on the reaction a small sample of blood can have to certain antibodies.
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Do Cats Have Different Blood Types
Do Cats Have Different Blood Types? Just as in humans and dogs, cats have different blood groups. These are important as the blood groups determine the compatibility of blood. There are three major feline blood groups: A, B and AB. Group A is the most common, but group B is quite common in certain pedigree breeds.
Find general information on blood collection methods and recommended blood collection sites for common laboratory animals. The blood collection method, interval between blood collection procedures, and volume of blood to remove must be listed in the approved protocol specific to each study. For some species, blood collection may be adequately performed while the animal is awake using the appropriate restraint. Dogs, cats, sheep, and calves: Usually require only physical restraint to collect blood. Chemical restraint may be required to collect blood from some animals/species. Collection guidelines: Volumes RAR veterinary staff provide the following criteria to determine the maximum, safe amount of blood to withdraw. When calculating blood volumes based on body weights, remember that body weights in kilograms will convert to blood volumes in liters, and weight in grams will convert to volumes in milliliters.
Can you give human blood to a cat? Many differences exist between species, which means that human blood cannot be given to a pet, and dog or cat blood cannot be used interchangeably.