Tuesday, May 21, 2024

How Long Can A Cat Live With Pectus Excavatum

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Early Intervention Is Critical

A radiograph of a kitten with pectus excavatum

If you believe that your kitten might have pectus excavatum, you should make an appointment with an orthopedic specialist or experienced veterinarian right away. The veterinarian will take radiographs of the kittens chest to determine the extent of the condition, and to decide whether or not surgery will be necessary. In some mild cases, cats can live long healthy lives without surgery, but in many cases, they will need surgery in order to survive past kittenhood. Time is of the essence in these cases, so it is recommended to schedule an appointment as quickly as possible.

Surgery is most effective and successful in young kittens whose bones are still pliableideally between three weeks and three months of age. While older kittens can still receive successful treatment, their surgeries can be more complicated and risky. Talk to a veterinarian about the best treatment option for your kitten given her age and the severity of her symptoms.

Pectus Excavatum In Cats

The sternum, or chest bone, is a long flat bone located in the center of the thorax, and the costal cartilages are the cartilages that connect the chest bone with the ends of the ribs. In pectus excavatum, the sternum and costal cartilages are deformed, resulting in a horizontal narrowing of the chest, primarily on the posterior side. In appearance, the middle of the chest appear to be flat or concave, rather than slightly convex.

Evidential Basis And Statistical Analysis

Almost all reporting of FCKS is treated as anecdotal, since it comes from breeders and not from veterinary practitioners. However, in the absence of robust clinical studies breeder-reporting is the only source of information currently available. Reporting about type of FCKS is hampered by the lack of differentiation between one type and another by both breeders and vets. The data informing this article came from three sources:

The 20-year analysis was compared with the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy in the UK analysis of numbers of kittens registered during the same period. The full report is to be published during 2020.

Only direct reports from owners about their own cats or vets examining kittens were considered. Kittens exhibiting any other condition were excluded. The overwhelming majority of reports were of single FCKS cases in a litter, with the remainder whole or part litters.The data comprised 311 reports of litters of kittens in which one or more developed FCKS, for a total of 464 affected kittens .

Reports originated from 21 countries , Austria , Belgium , Canada , Denmark , Finland , France , Germany , Hungary , Japan , Netherlands , New Zealand , Norway , Portugal , Singapore , Slovakia , South Africa , Sweden , Switzerland , UK , USA ) and covered 39 breeds . 10 reports did not specify breed.

Pectus Excavatum At Seattle Childrens

Our highly trained surgery team at Seattle Childrens has seen hundreds of children with pectus excavatum and sees dozens of cases each year. This experience helps us easily diagnose your childs condition and work with you to decide on the best treatment. We take a conservative approach and, in most cases, children with pectus excavatum can live a normal, active childhood without needing surgery. In more severe cases, treatment includes surgery to stop a childs breastbone from pushing on their heart and lungs.

Short Facts About Munchkin Cats

Best 15 Munchkin Cat Facts, Allergies, Behavior, Lifespan ...

With its short little legs and low-slung torso, some people view the Munchkin cat as the feline version of a Dachshund. Here are seven facts about the stubby-limbed kitty. 


Like many unusual cat types , the Munchkin breed arose from a spontaneous genetic mutation. The Munchkins short legs are caused by an autosomal dominant gene, which causes the long bones in a cat’s legs to grow shorter. A cat only needs one copy of the gene to inherit short legs and to pass the trait along to its kittens.

One warning to breeders: The Munchkin gene is sometimes referred to as the “lethal” gene because if a Munchkin cat embryo receives one of these genes from each parent, it won’t survive. That’s why breeders don’t mate two short-legged Munchkin cats together. Cats born with long legs can carry the Munchkin gene, and they’re often mated with each other, or a short-legged Munchkin cat, to produce a litter of healthy, stubby-limbed kittens.


Throughout the 20th century, various individuals documented sightings of short-legged feral cats in Great Britain, Russia, and New England. But it wasnt until the 1980s that people officially began breeding the Kangaroo cat, which some people called the kitty because its forelegs were shorter than its hind legs.



The Ethics Of Cuteness: A Closer Look At 12 Trendy Cat Mutations

  • Georgia State University

From Grumpy Cat to Lil Bub, it seems like every day there’s a new Internet “It Cat” that steals our hearts with its unbearably adorable looks or personality. While many of these charismatic kitties rise to fame from humble beginnings as rescue animals, countless others are purposefully bred for their unique, squee-worthy characteristics.

At its root, there is nothing new about this practice. Selective breeding has been going on for thousands of years it’s how all domesticated animals were developed. When a mutated trait is appealing or useful to humans, these individuals are intentionally bred to produce more offspring that exhibit the trait.

That said, while many mutations can be quite benign, serious ethical concerns arise when animals are specifically bred for aesthetic traits that are painful or debilitating.

“In cat breeds, physical mutations that were previously allowed to perish are now being developed merely for the sake of difference,” Roger Tabor, biologist and author of “The Rise of the Cats,” explains. “Not all are harmful, but some are achieved at considerable cost to the cat.”

Not all mutations are as extreme or debilitating as the ones twisty cats exhibit, though some fancy cat breeds do experience higher incidences of certain medical conditions. Continue reading below to learn about some of the most unusual genetic mutations in cats.

Pectus Excavatum Cat Surgery Cost

The average cost of the pectus excavatum cat surgery is $800.

It usually ranges from $150 up to $2500. It mostly depends on the deformity severity, the cat’s age, and the expertise and experience of the veterinary surgeon.

If you’re financially stable, there is no reason why you wouldn’t pay for your lovely kitty to undergo surgery.

It will improve its quality of life, and it will live happily till the rest of its life.

In my opinion, the love and affection your feline will bring to your household is priceless.

You probably don’t want to watch it sad and depressed with the deep depression in its chest.

The external splinting surgery is cheaper than the Nuss procedure for humans, which costs up to $100,000.

If I Don’t Have Surgery Will Pectus Excavatum Harm My Heart And Lungs Or Limit My Life Expectancy

There is no evidence that pectus excavatum limits life expectancy or causes progressive damage to the heart and lungs over time. It is not uncommon for individuals to develop more symptoms over time. This is likely due to the normal aging process and increasing difficulties compensating for the functional impairments associated with pectus excavatum. This, however, does not mean damage is occurring.

A Munchkin Cat Is Especially Curious

If you thought the typical cat breed was curious, the Munchkin cat is curious on a whole different level. He can, and will, explore every nook, corner and cranny of your abode more than once and likely pilfer a pretty something each and every time!

Thumbnail: Photography by Tetsu Yamazaki.

This piece was originally published in 2017.

Editors note: This article appeared in Catster magazine. Have you seen the new Catster print magazine in stores? Or in the waiting room of your vets office? ! 

Recovery Of Chest Bone Deformity In Cats

Watch out for breathing difficulties, especially during the first two days after surgery. If you detect any issues with the cats behavior, breathing, or chest movement, call your veterinarian immediately. The cat is prescribed antibiotics for two weeks, in addition to a short course of painkillers. You should give it manual lateral chest compressions to help decrease the sunken appearance. If the cat gets the fiberglass cast treatment, the cast is kept in place for the next six weeks. Ensure that the cat limits exercise or moving around when the cast is on, especially considering that it may feel sore. It should be kept away from other animals, as well as active children; the best way to ensure this might be to keep it in a cage. Also, change the cats bandage material every two weeks.


*Wag! may collect a share of sales or other compensation from the links on this page. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!.

Chest Bone Deformity Average Cost

From 326 quotes ranging from $150 – $2,500

Average Cost

What Is Chest Bone Deformity

Chest bone deformity in cats typically refers to a common deformity known as funnel chest, which is known by the medical term “pectus excavatum”. Pectus excavatum is a condition in which the chest bone and the ribs to which it is connected grow abnormally. The result is a chest that has a sunken or concave look; ideally it should look slightly convex.

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Chest Bone Deformity Average Cost

From 326 quotes ranging from $150 – $2,500

Average Cost

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Causes Of Chest Bone Deformity In Cats

Currently, there is no known cause of chest bone deformity in cats. Although some researchers believe that some cat breeds are genetically predisposed to develop pectus excavatum, no cat breed is spared from the condition. Indeed, chest bone deformity can occur in cats that are less likely than others to develop it. However, researchers theorize that the deformity occurs when the costal cartilageswhich constitute connective tissue that join the ribs to the chest bonegrow in an irregular fashion. This causes the chest bone to move inward. Also, chest bone deformity is linked to other conditions, such as Marfan syndrome, which is a connective tissue disorder.


How To Care For A Burmese

Meet The Stunning Cat With Severe Pectus Excavatum Who Is ...

Burmese cats can have some inherited health issues, so its wise to take out cat insurance. Cat cover can help you manage financially with any unexpected vets bills.

Burmese cats are highly intelligent and will pick things up quickly, including toilet training. Theyll enjoy puzzle toys and games such as playing fetch. They can also be taught to walk on a lead and perform various tricks.

What Its Like To Live With A Munchkin

If you thought your Munchkin would be a sedate little couch potato, you thought wrong. He wont win any high-jump records, but hell tear through your house at a speed you never imagined possible. He loves nothing more than a good game of chase, whether thats with a toy on a string, the family dog, or a feline friend.

You can expect your Munchkin to serve as your homes welcoming committee. He loves company, and with such a charming disposition, company will love him, too. One of the cutest Munchkin habits is sitting up on his hind legs like a rabbit to catch a glance of something that caught his attention. Hes a very intelligent cat, so challenge him by teaching him tricks or providing him with puzzle toys.

Are Burmese Cats Hypoallergenic

No cat is completely hypoallergenic they all produce the protein in their saliva that is the cause of cat allergies. However, Burmese cats are considered to be one of the breeds that produce less dander and less of the protein Fel D-1 in their saliva. This means that they might cause less of an allergic reaction.

Choosing The Best Food For Munchkin Kittens

Your Munchkin kitten will also need a complete and balanced food that provides all the nutrients shell need to become a healthy, mature cat. Kitten food like Purina Kitten Chow-Nature will aid in building strong bones, strong muscles, including a healthy heart, and other essential developments shell need to live a long and healthy life.

How Is Pectus Excavatum Diagnosed

The diagnosis of pectus excavatum is made with a simple physical examination. Quite often, the defect does not become noticeable until the early teen years. A more detailed workup, including chest imaging by or CT scan and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, accurately measures how serious the pectus is and its effect on cardiopulmonary function. Echocardiogram and pulmonary function tests may also be used to evaluate pectus excavatum.

The Funnel Chest Deformity In Cats Can Be Life Threatening

Pectus excavatum in kitties isn’t just an aesthetic problem.

The deformity can cause problems in the cat’s cardiac and pulmonary functioning.

In veterinary medicine, a little is known about rare diseases like pectoralis excavatum in animals.

Recently, this unknown world of rare diseases sparked the interest of scientists.

They are increasingly diagnosing such diseases and do a lot of research for them.

Typically, most cats affected by the condition, have a lower lifespan in comparison to healthy cats.

However, there are effective surgical correction techniques that will fix their deformity.

Most cats affected, usually indicate breathing warning signs.

Such is trouble breathing after performing an inconsiderable physical activity like jumping or running.

You can identify these respiratory symptoms not long after birth.

However, most owners aren’t aware that pectus excavatum can affect their cats.

They can acknowledge the malformation in their kitties visually, just by looking at their sunken sternum.

To identify the deformity, you can check whether the midpoint of their chest, happens to be flat or visibly hollow.

In healthy cats, it should be a little curved.

That’s the most visible indicator of pectus excavatum.

Can I Participate In Sports If I Have Pectus Excavatum

Yes! People who have pectus excavatum should continue participating in all activities they find enjoyable. Some symptoms may be exacerbated with physical activity but the activity itself does not pose a health risk. Pay attention to activities that seem to cause problems and ask your pectus professional if there is any relation.

Using Cryoablation To Reduce Pain After Surgery

Cryoablation is a newer modality of pain management for patients undergoing bar placement to repair pectus excavatum repair that dramatically reduces pain after surgery. The decision to use cryoablation was based on extensively investigating patient outcomes which revealed that cryoablation was safe and effective to improve pain control and shortened the hospital stay. In the operating room, the surgeon will freeze 4 intercostal nerves on each side prior to placing the bar. This will temporarily decrease pain transmission through these nerves. The full effect may take 12-24 hours for optimal pain control. This does not eliminate the pain completely. The cryoablation will last between 2-3 months. Patients may experience some skin numbness to chest wall. The numbness should resolve within 3-6 months when the nerve regenerates.

The patients will go home with short term use of oral pain medications to continue during their recovery. When cryoablation works well, most patients can go home with in a day or two after surgery. Some may be able to be discharged the day of surgery.

Choosing The Best Food For Munchkin Cats

Kitten with Pectus Excavatum

Munchkins need a complete and balanced diet, coupled with regular exercise, to maintain a healthy weight and avoid unnecessary stress on their joints. An adult cat food such as Purina Cat Chow Indoor, Purina Cat Chow Naturals Indoor or Purina Beyond Indoor Grain Free Salmon & Egg Recipe can help keep your Munchkin happy and healthy. Because of their short legs, your Munchkin kitty may need a shallower bowl than other breeds. If you have questions or concerns about your cats nutrition, consult with your veterinarian.

To explore other products for your Munchkin, see our Product Selector.

Examination Of The Chest And Lungs

The chest wall should be examined for skeletal abnormalities such as kyphoscoliosis, pectus excavatum, or pectus carinatum. The presence and severity of skeletal deformities influence ventilatory capacity and hypoventilation. During auscultation of the chest, prolonged expiration and inspiratory/expiratory wheezes point toward asthma, absent breath sounds or dullness to finger percussion points toward pleural effusion or atelectasis, and the presence of crackles or bronchial breath sounds points toward pneumonia. Inspiratory rates in conjunction with elevated jugular venous pressure of the neck and lower-extremity edema suggest underlying cardiac disease . In patients with severe OSA or those with obesity hypoventilation syndrome, findings suggestive of right-sided heart failure may be present. Pulmonary hypertension may be present in obesity hypoventilation or severe OSA, and is suspected when auscultation of the heart reveals a prominent fourth heart sound or murmurs secondary to pulmonic or tricuspid valve regurgitation.

As previously described, evaluate the respiratory rate, rhythm, and effort.




See also Chapter 142.

Symptoms Of Chest Bone Deformity In Cats

The definitive manifestation of pectus excavatum is the aforementioned sunken appearance of the chest bone. The deformity compresses the lungs and the heart, thus hampering their ability to function normally. As a result, the affected cat has difficulty breathing, and when it does, theres an increased depth to the breathing. Also, it can be quite a struggle for the cat to move around, let alone do routine exercise. 

Other symptoms of chest bone deformity include:

  • Coughing
  • Regular occurrence of lung infections
  • Vomiting


Exercises To Help Pectus Excavatum

Although there have been very few studies on the role of exercise in remedying pectus excavatum, doctors believe it could help strengthen and reshape the chest. Exercise will not cure pectus excavatum, but it can improve poor posture and may slow progression of mild to moderate conditions. Regular exercise can also lessen problems with breathing or exercise stamina.

The following exercises are aimed at strengthening chest and back muscles. Other exercises and sports such as swimming and running can also improve muscle tone and encourage deep breathing. 

Chest Expansion

The goal of this exercise is to push your shoulders back and promote good posture. 

Step 1: Stand up straight, with your shoulders pushed back. 

Step 2: Breathe in as deeply as possible, pulling your shoulders back as you inhale. 

Step 3: Hold your breath for as long as possible.

Repeat 20 times. Do this every morning and evening. 

Back Straightening

This is a simple exercise that pulls your shoulders back and strengthens your back.

Step 1: Place hands behind your head, fingers interlocked. 

Step 2: Pull your elbows back as much as possible, keeping your head and neck straight. 

Step 3: Bend forward from the hips until your back is horizontal. Hold for 2 to 3 seconds, keeping your head and neck straight. It is important to hold your elbows in the original position and to keep your spine straight.

Repeat 25 times.

Dumbbell flys

The aim of dumbbell flys is to strengthen your chest and back muscles.


Pectus Excavatum Deformity In Cats

The pectus excavatum deformity is also present in cats.

You can see the indentation typically within a few days after birth.

At the time of this writing, there is still a lack of data to determine the racial or sexual inclination of pectus excavatum deformity in kittens.

Also, it can occur in dogs.

Between the two, the deformity is more dominant in cats.

Besides felines and dogs, the concave chest abnormality can also target humans, primates, lemurs, and nutria.

It is resulting in ventral to dorsal narrowing of the whole chest or dent in the sternum.

  • Weak desire to eat and difficulty with gaining weight

Pectus Excavatum And Lipomodeling

Pectus excavatum is a complex deformity in which the depression of the sternum and adjacent ribs results in a sunken chest wall. The functional abnormality induced is generally mild or null. Most patients principally exhibit difficulties stemming from morphological and esthetic concerns. If pectus excavatum is severe or the deformity is restricted to one side of the chest, it may affect the shape of the patient’s breast. Fat transfer can provide satisfactory results in this indication, either alone in patients with moderate or mild deformity, or in combination with patient-tailored silicone prosthesis for more severe forms.

M. Hubler, … S.J. Langley-Hobbs, in, 2009

Is A Burmese Cat Right For You

With their intelligent and playful personalities, Burmese cats charm everyone they meet. Theyre low maintenance for grooming but dont like to be left alone too long. Perhaps consider buying two, ideally a sibling, for company. Theyll fit in well in families with children and households with other cats and cat-friendly dogs. If you can give them lots of attention, the Burmese will be the perfect fit for you.

Longitudinal Sternebral Pinning With External Splinting

The longitudinal sternebral pinning combined with external splinting technique utilizes a flexible brace material and a Kirschner bar.

This causes a realignment of the concave sternum in the kitten.

The Kirschner bar is embedded by the surgeon into the sunken breastbone, from the manubrium to the fourth sternebrae.

Anesthetic is given to the cat during the operational procedure for repairing Pectus Excavatum.

Also, the intensity of the chest examination and the X-ray can cost the cat its life.

Most commonly, veterinarians opt for mask anesthesia.

In most cases, intubation is not possible with baby cats, and injection anesthesia is very dangerous.

The mask anesthesia gives cats the needed anesthetic and oxygen that cats urgently need during the operation.

Below, you can see how this technique is performed.


Then the cat is entirely shaved at the surgery area in the chest.


Then, a custom splint made of plastic is adapted to the cat’s body. The brace is very well padded on the sides.

The brace is curved, just like a typical cat chest wall should look.


Then, a custom splint made of plastic is adapted to the cat’s body. The brace is very well padded on the sides.

The brace is curved, just like a typical cat chest wall should look.


In the area where the sternum is positioned, holes are drilled in the splint. This is the exact time point when difficult tasks start.


That is usually done with four strings.


This is when most of the deaths occur.

What Causes Pectus Excavatum In Cats

Meet The Stunning Cat With Severe Pectus Excavatum Who Is ...

The exact cause of pectus excavatum in kittens is still unknown.

Just like humans, cats also have a heritable inclination for the deformity.

Because of this, castration is suggested for cats with pectus excavatum.

Several cat breeds are more prone to sunken chest than others.

Siamese, Burmese, Bengal, Munchkin, and related breeds are most susceptible to the deformity. However, it can happen to almost any breed.

Kitten With Rare Condition Beats The Odds He Deserved A Fighting Chance

May 31, 2021

It seemed like a normal day for an Arkansas kitten rescuer when a litter of kittens were taken into her custody.

Little did she know, one of these kittens had a life threatening condition he was hiding

Keep reading to discover how one woman refused to accept euthanasia as an option and stopped at nothing to save this kitten from a horrible fate.

Bullied Teenager ‘nearly Died After Steel Bar Inserted To Disguise His Sunken Chest Came Within 1cm Of His Heart’

  • Euan Russell was born with pectus excavatum – an abnormal development of the rib cage where the breastbone caves in
  • He was targeted by bullies causing him to research a cosmetic operation
  • In September 2011, at 15, he had a metal bar inserted to correct the dip
  • But months later he was diagnosed with inflammation of the heart sac
  • A year later he noticed his heart was making a strange noise
  • He said doctors told him the bar had ‘flipped around and gone into his heart’
  • ‘My heart was growing around the bar and if it moved a centimetre to the right or to the left I could have died,’ he said
  • He underwent an emergency heart bypass operation to remove the bar 

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